Microsoft Office Tutorials and References
In Depth Information
When the lookup table is small (as in the example shown in Figure 8-10), you can use a literal array in place of
the lookup table. The formula that follows, for example, returns a letter grade without using a lookup table. In-
stead, the information in the lookup table is hard-coded into an array constant. See Chapter 14 for more inform-
ation about array constants.
Another approach, which uses a more legible formula, is to use the LOOKUP function with two array argu-
Calculating a grade point average
A student's grade point average (GPA) is a numerical measure of the average grade received for classes taken.
This discussion assumes a letter grade system, in which each letter grade is assigned a numeric value (A=4,
B=3, C=2, D=1, and F=0). The GPA comprises an average of the numeric grade values, weighted by the credit
hours of the course. A one-hour course, for example, receives less weight than a three-hour course. The GPA
ranges from 0 (all Fs) to 4.00 (all As).
Figure 8-11 shows a worksheet with information for a student. This student took five courses, for a total of 13
credit hours. Range B2:B6 is named CreditHours. The grades for each course appear in column C (Range
C2:C6 is named Grades ). Column D uses a lookup formula to calculate the grade value for each course. The
lookup formula in cell D2, for example, follows. This formula uses the lookup table in G2:H6 (named GradeT-
able ).
Figure 8-11: Using multiple formulas to calculate a GPA.
Formulas in column E calculate the weighted values. The formula in E2 is
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