Microsoft Office Tutorials and References
In Depth Information
Using Other Functions
So what’s it worth to you in spending power, right
now, to make those $100 payments each month?
Try this formula: =PV(.04/12,5*12,–100). Well,
looks like all that money is worth $5,429.91
right now. But keep in mind that you only have
to part with $100 of it each month. That thought
should keep the pain level down, along with the
thought that after five years, you’ll have earned
almost $1,200! Now that’s worth a little pain.
To create a logical test or condition, you can use
any of the following operators:
= Equal
<> Not equal
> Greater than
< Less than
>= Greater than or equal to
<= Less than or equal to
Using Logical Functions
Logical functions are used to display text or a
value, or to perform some calculation, only if
some condition is true. If the condition is not
true, some alternate text or value is displayed, or
some other calculation is performed. For
example, you could tell Excel to compare the value in
cell G10 with the value in H10, and if G10 is
greater, to perform the calculation G10*.05. If
G10 is not greater than H10, you could tell Excel
to perform the calculation H10*.05 instead. The
most common Logical function is the IF function,
which has several variants.
For example, to test whether A2 is larger than
B2, use the condition A2>B2. Now, suppose a
teacher wants to use the IF function to determine
whether a student has failed her class. Assuming
the first student’s grade is in cell C4, she could
type =IF(C4>64,“Pass”,“Fail”) in cell D4. If the
first student’s grade is 65 or greater, then the
word Pass will appear in cell D4. Otherwise, the
word Fail appears. The teacher could then copy
this formula down column D to display either
Pass or Fail for each student.
The syntax for the IF function is
=IF(Condition,ActionIfTrue,ActionIfFalse). The
first argument, Condition, is a logical test, which
is essentially a comparison. If the comparison is
true, the action listed as the second argument
is taken. If the comparison is not true, the action
listed as the third argument is taken.
You can nest one IF function within
another if you want to test for multiple
conditions. Suppose for example, that in
order to pass the course, the student must
get at least a 65% average on his/her
homework, and at least 72% on the final
test. Assuming that the homework average
is in cell B4, and the final test score is in
C4, the teacher could type the following
into cell D4 to indicate whether the first
student passed or failed, and why:
Final”),”Failed Homework”).
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