Microsoft Office Tutorials and References
In Depth Information
Adding Functions to a Formula
The mixed reference $B7 tells Excel that no matter where you copy the formula, it should
always point to the value in column B for the current row. To create a mixed range, type
it manually or select the reference and then press F4 multiple times to cycle through each
available option.
Controlling the Order of Calculation in a Formula
The order in which Excel performs operations in formulas makes a difference. It’s common
for formulas to contain multiple operators. Unless you specify a custom order by using
parentheses, Excel performs calculations in the following order:
% (percent)
^ (exponentiation)
* and / (multiplication and division)
+ and – (addition and subtraction)
& (concatenation)
=, < and >, <= and >, =, and <> (comparison)
When the same operator is used multiple times in a formula, the calculations are performed
in order from left to right.
When you use functions as arguments within functions, you use multiple sets of
parentheses to keep things separate. You can nest functions to as many as 64 levels within a formula.
Adding Functions to a Formula
Excel savants who’ve memorized the syntax of the functions they use regularly can enter
a formula as fast as they can type. Start with an equal sign, spell each function name
correctly, separate arguments with commas, and make sure every opening parenthesis is
matched with a closing parenthesis. As long as you get all those details right, you’ll have no
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