Microsoft Office Tutorials and References
In Depth Information
Exhibit 2.11 Step 3-selection of X-axis data labels
2.5 An Example of Graphical Data Analysis and Presentation
Before we begin a full scale example of graphical data analysis and presentation,
let’s consider the task we have before us. We are engaging in an exercise, Data
Analysis , which can be organized into 4 basic activities: collecting , summarizing ,
analyzing , and presenting data. Our example will be organized into each of these
steps, all of which are essential to successful graphical data analysis.
Collecting data not only involves the act of gathering, but also includes careful
planning for the types of data to be collected (interval, ordinal, etc.). Data collection
can be quite costly; thus, if we gather the wrong data or omit necessary data, we
may have to make a costly future investment to repeat this activity. Some important
questions we should ask before collecting are:
1. What data are necessary to achieve our analysis goals?
2. Where and when will we collect the data?
3. How many and what types of data elements related to an observation (e.g. cus-
tomer name, date, etc.) are needed to describe the context or orientation? For
example, each record of the 39 total in Table 2.2 represents an invoice or receipt
observation with 7 data ﬁelds with nominal, interval, and ratio data elements.