Microsoft Office Tutorials and References
In Depth Information
Once we have collected, summarized, and analyzed our data we are ready for
presenting data results. Much of what we have discussed in this chapter is related
to graphical presentation of data and represents a distillation of our understanding
of the data. The goal of presentation is to inform and inﬂuence our audience. If our
preliminary steps are performed well, the presentation of results should be relatively
straight forward.
With this simple model in mind—collect, summarize, analyze, and present—
let’s apply what we have learned to an example problem. We will begin with the
collection of data, proceed to a data summarization phase, perform some simple
analysis, and then select various graphical presentation formats that will highlight
the insights we have gained.
2.5.1 Example—Tere’s Budget for the 2nd Semester of College
This example is motivated by a concerned parent, Dad, monitoring the second
semester college expenditures for his daughter, Tere. Tere is in her ﬁrst year of
university. In the 1st semester, Tere’s expenditures far exceeded Dad’s planned bud-
get. Therefore, Dad has decided to monitor how much she spends during the 2nd
semester. The 2nd semester will constitute a data collection period to study expen-
ditures. Dad is skilled in data analysis and what he learns from this semester will
become the basis of his advice to Tere regarding her future spending. Table 2.4 pro-
vides a detailed breakdown of the expenditures that result from the 2nd semester,
speciﬁcally 60 expenditures that Tere incurred. Dad has set as his goal for the anal-
ysis the determination of how and why expenditures occur over time. The following
sections take us step by step through the data analysis process, with special emphasis
on the presentation of results.
Table 2.4 2nd semester university student expenses
Cash/CRedit
Card
Food/Personal/
School
Obs.
Week
Date
Weekday Amount
1
Week 01
6-Jan
Sn
111.46
R
F
2
7-Jan
M
43.23
C
S
3
8-Jan
T
17.11
C
S
4
10-Jan
Th
17.67
C
P
5
Week 02
13-Jan
Sn
107.00
R
F
6
14-Jan
M
36.65
C
P
7
14-Jan
M
33.91
C
P
8
17-Jan
Th
17.67
C
P
9
18-Jan
F
41.17
R
F
10
Week 03
20-Jan
Sn
91.53
R
F
11
21-Jan
M
49.76
C
P
12
21-Jan
M
32.97
C
S
13
22-Jan
T
14.03
C
P
14
24-Jan
Th
17.67
C
P
15
24-Jan
Th
17.67
C
P
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