Microsoft Office Tutorials and References

In Depth Information

**IF**

=ROUND(number, number of decimal places to round to)

The syntax for ROUNDUP and ROUNDDOWN is the same as ROUND:

=ROUNDUP(number, number of decimal places to round to)

=ROUNDDOWN(number, number of decimal places to round to)

IF

IF is a very handy function. It tests a condition and then returns one of two

results, depending on the outcome of the test. The test must return a true or

false answer. For example, a test may be B25 > C30. If true, then IF returns

its second argument. If false, IF returns its third argument.

IF is often used as a validation step to avoid unwanted errors. The most

common use of this is to test whether a denominator is 0 before doing a

division operation. By testing for 0 first, you can avoid the #DIV/0! error.

One of the great things about IF is that the result can be a blank. This

function is great when you want to return a result if the test comes out one way

but not if the result is otherwise. The syntax follows:

=IF(logical test, value if true, value if false)

NOW and TODAY

The NOW function returns the current date and time according to your

computer’s internal clock. TODAY returns just the date. If the date or time is

wrong, it can’t help you with that.

A common use of NOW is to return the date and time for a printed report.

You know, so a message such as “Printed on 10/24/2012 10:15” can be put on

the printed paper.

A common use for TODAY is to calculate the elapsed time between a past date

and “today.” For example, you may be tracking a project’s duration. A cell on

the worksheet has the start date. Another cell has a formula that subtracts that

date from TODAY. The answer is the number of days that have gone by.

NOW and TODAY take no arguments. The syntax for each follows: