Microsoft Office Tutorials and References
In Depth Information
Using Absolute References
Formulas using an absolute reference
reference to the sales
tax rate in cell A2
to cell A2
to cells C2 and D2
when pasted into a
new location, the
$A$2 continues to
be referenced in
change based on
values returned by
the cell formulas
In this ﬁ gure, the sales tax of different purchases is calculated and displayed. All items
have the same 5 percent tax rate applied to the purchase, with the tax rate stored in
cell A2. The sales tax and total cost of the ﬁ rst item are calculated in cells D2 and E2,
respectively. When those formulas are copied and pasted to the remaining purchases,
the relative references in the formulas are modiﬁ ed to point to the new location of the
purchase cost; however, the sales tax rate continues to point to cell A2, regardless of the
location of the selected cell.
You will modify the formulas in the Budget worksheet so that they reference Diane’s
income estimates using absolute rather than relative references.
To use absolute references to display the monthly income:
1. In cell C19, enter =$D$5 . This formula contains an absolute reference to cell D5,
which contains Diane’s monthly income during the school months.
2. In cell C20, enter =$D$6 . This formula contains an absolute reference to cell D6,
which contains Glenn’s monthly income during the school months.
3. Copy the corrected formulas in the range C19:C20 , and then paste them in the
range D19:G20 . As shown in Figure 3-7, the months of February through May now
correctly show the monthly income values for the school months.