Microsoft Office Tutorials and References
In Depth Information
ROUND(), ROUNDDOWN(), ROUNDUP(): Rounding Numbers
Rounding Numbers
Use a rounding function . This approach gives you more control. For example,
you can round a number before you use it in another calculation, and you can
round numbers to a multiple you choose, like 500 or 1,000. The drawback is
that when you use a rounding function, you may lose precision. This doesn’t
happen when you change the number format, which simply tweaks the way the
number is displayed.
With classic overkill, Microsoft includes no fewer than 10 functions designed
specifically for rounding numbers; what follows is a look at the most useful ones.
ROUND(), ROUNDDOWN(), ROUNDUP(): Rounding Numbers
The most basic (and most commonly used) of Excel’s rounding functions is
ROUND(), which rounds a numeric value to whatever level of precision you choose.
The ROUND() function needs two arguments: the actual number you want to
round, and the number of digits you want to keep to the right of the decimal point.
Here’s what it looks like:
ROUND(number_to_round, number_of_digits)
For example, the following formula rounds the number 3.987 to two decimal places.
The result is 3.99.
=ROUND(3.987, 2)
If you specify 0 for the number of digits, then Excel rounds to the nearest whole
number. Interestingly, you can also round to the nearest 10, 100, 1000, and so on by
using negative numbers for the second argument. For example, if you use –2 for the
number of digits, then Excel rounds two digits to the left of the decimal place, which
means your number gets rounded to the nearest 100.
Here’s an example:
=ROUND(34655.7, -2)
This formula produces a result of 34,700.
Note: The ROUND() function always rounds the positive values 1 through 4 down ; 5 through 9 get rounded
up. If you round 1.5 to the nearest whole number, for instance, the result is 2. When dealing with negative
numbers, Excel rounds the digits 5 through 9 down (toward the larger negative value). Similarly, –1 through
–4 get rounded up. For example, –1.5 gets rounded to –2, while –1.4 gets rounded up to –1.
The ROUNDDOWN() and ROUNDUP() functions work similarly to ROUND().
Like ROUND(), they take two arguments: the number you want to round, and the
number of decimal places you want the final, rounded number to use. The difference
is that ROUNDDOWN() always rounds numbers down, while ROUNDUP() always
rounds numbers up.
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