Microsoft Office Tutorials and References

In Depth Information

**Use Absolute Cell References in a Formula**

Use Absolute Cell References

in a Formula

You can improve the accuracy of your formulas

and make them easier to copy by using

absolute cell references.

When you use a cell reference in a formula,

Excel looks at the cell address relative to the

location of the formula. For example, suppose

that you have the formula =A1*2 in cell A3. To

Excel, this formula says, “Multiply the contents

of the cell two rows above this one by 2.” This

is called the
relative reference format,
and it is

the default format for Excel. This means that if

you copy this formula to cell A4, the relative

reference is still “Multiply the contents of the

cell two rows above this one by 2,” but the

formula changes to =A2*2 because A2 is two

rows above A4.

When you refer to a cell in a formula using the

absolute reference format
— such as $A$1

instead of A1 — Excel uses the physical address

of the cell. For example, Excel interprets the

formula =$A$1*2 as “Multiply the contents of

cell A1 by 2.” No matter where you copy this

formula, the cell reference does not change.

1
Select the cell that

contains the formula you

want to edit.

1

2
Press F2.

●

Excel opens the cell for

editing.