Microsoft Office Tutorials and References
In Depth Information
Use Absolute Cell References in a Formula
Use Absolute Cell References
in a Formula
You can improve the accuracy of your formulas
and make them easier to copy by using
absolute cell references.
When you use a cell reference in a formula,
Excel looks at the cell address relative to the
location of the formula. For example, suppose
that you have the formula =A1*2 in cell A3. To
Excel, this formula says, “Multiply the contents
of the cell two rows above this one by 2.” This
is called the relative reference format, and it is
the default format for Excel. This means that if
you copy this formula to cell A4, the relative
reference is still “Multiply the contents of the
cell two rows above this one by 2,” but the
formula changes to =A2*2 because A2 is two
rows above A4.
When you refer to a cell in a formula using the
absolute reference format — such as $A$1
instead of A1 — Excel uses the physical address
of the cell. For example, Excel interprets the
formula =$A$1*2 as “Multiply the contents of
cell A1 by 2.” No matter where you copy this
formula, the cell reference does not change.
1 Select the cell that
contains the formula you
want to edit.
2 Press F2.
Excel opens the cell for