Microsoft Office Tutorials and References
In Depth Information
Using Operators in Formulas
Sample formulas that use operators
These examples of formulas use various operators:
h The following formula joins (concatenates) the two literal text strings (each enclosed in
quotes) to produce a new text string: Part-23A:
=”Part-”&”23A”
h The next formula concatenates the contents of cell A1 with cell A2:
=A1&A2
Usually, concatenation is used with text, but concatenation works with values as well. For
example, if cell A1 contains 123 and cell A2 contains 456, the preceding formula would
return the value 123456. Note that, technically, the result is a text string. However, if you
use this string in a mathematical formula, Excel treats it as a number. Many Excel
functions will ignore this “number” because they are designed to ignore text.
h The following formula uses the exponentiation (^) operator to raise 6 to the third power,
to produce a result of 216:
=6^3
h A more useful form of the preceding formula uses a cell reference instead of the literal
value. Note this example that raises the value in cell A1 to the third power:
=A1^3
h This formula returns the cube root of 216 (which is 6):
=216^(1/3)
h The next formula returns TRUE if the value in cell A1 is less than the value in cell A2.
Otherwise, it returns FALSE:
=A1<A2
Logical comparison operators also work with text. If A1 contains Alpha and A2 contains
Gamma, the formula returns TRUE because Alpha comes before Gamma in alphabetical
order.

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