Microsoft Office Tutorials and References
In Depth Information
Cell and Range References
h If working on a lengthy calculation, Excel temporarily suspends calculation when you
need to perform other worksheet tasks; it resumes when you finish.
h Formulas are evaluated in a natural sequence. For instance, if a formula in cell D12
depends on the result of a formula in cell D11, cell D11 is calculated before D12.
Sometimes, however, you may want to control when Excel calculates formulas. For example, if
you create a worksheet with thousands of complex formulas, you may find that things can slow
to a snail’s pace while Excel does its thing. In this case, you can set Excel’s Calculation mode to
Manual. Do this by choosing Formulas
Calculation
Calculation Options
Manual.
When you work in manual Calculation mode, Excel displays Calculate in the status bar when
you have any uncalculated formulas. The Formulas
Calculation group contains two controls
that, when clicked, perform a calculation: Calculate Now and Calculate Sheet. In addition to these
controls, you can use the following shortcut keys to recalculate the formulas:
h F9: Calculates the formulas in all open workbooks (same as the Calculate Now control).
h Shift+F9: Calculates only the formulas in the active worksheet. It does not calculate other
worksheets in the same workbook (same as the Calculate Sheet control).
h Ctrl+Alt+F9: Forces a complete recalculation of all open workbooks. Use it if Excel (for
some reason) doesn’t seem to return correct calculations.
h Ctrl+Shift+Alt+F9: Rechecks all the dependent formulas and then forces a recalculation
of all open workbooks.
Contrary to what you might expect, Excel’s Calculation mode isn’t specific to a
particular worksheet. When you change Excel’s Calculation mode, it affects all open
workbooks — not just the active workbook. Also, the initial Calculation mode is set by the
Calculation mode saved with the first workbook that you open.
Cell and Range References
Most formulas reference one or more cells by using the cell or range address (or the name if it
has one). Cell references come in four styles; the dollar sign differentiates them:
h Relative: The reference is fully relative. When you copy the formula, the cell reference
adjusts to its new location.
Example: A1
h Absolute: The reference is fully absolute. When you copy the formula, the cell reference
does not change.
Example: $A$1
 
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