Microsoft Office Tutorials and References

In Depth Information

**Session 1.1**

Entering Values

Values
are numbers that represent a quantity of some type: the number of units in an

inventory, stock prices, an exam score, and so on. Values can be numbers such as 378

and 25.275 or negative numbers such as –55.208. Values can also be expressed as cur-

rency such as $14.95 or as percentages such as 95%. Not all numbers are treated as val-

ues. For example, Excel treats a telephone number (1-800-555-8010) or a Social Security

number (372-70-9654) as a text entry. As you type information into a cell, Excel deter-

mines whether the entry can be treated as a value, and if so, automatically right-aligns the

value within the cell.

Next, you’ll enter the price and quantity of the first order into cells E2 and F2.

To enter the price and quantity values:

1.
Type
$14
in cell E2, and then press the
Tab
key.

2.
Type
2
in cell F2, and then press the
Tab
key. Figure 1-11 shows the data for the first order.

The last cell in the row is empty, but next you will enter a calculation that will give Sandra

the total amount of the order.

Figure 1-11

Entering the price and quantity values

data for the first

order entered

The remaining cell in this row will contain the total price of the order, which is equal

to the price of the red grapefruit item multiplied by the quantity ordered. The total price of

the first order is $14 multiplied by 2, or $28. Rather than entering this value into the cell,

you’ll let Excel calculate it for you by entering a formula.

Entering Formulas

The single most important reason for using a spreadsheet is to perform calculations on

data. To accomplish that goal, you need to enter formulas. A
formula
is a mathematical

expression that calculates a value. Excel formulas always begin with an equal sign (=)

followed by an expression that describes the calculation to be done. A formula can con-

tain one or more
arithmetic operators
, such as +, –, *, or /. For example, the formula

=A1+A2
calculates the sum by adding the values of cells A1 and A2. Figure 1-12 gives

examples of some other Excel formulas. Note that, by convention, cell references appear

in uppercase letters, but this is not a requirement for Excel formulas. You can type the

formula using either upper- or lowercase letters, and Excel will automatically convert the

cell references to uppercase.