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Fig. 5.6 Example of Drawing a “Picture” of the Means of the Two Groups on the Rating Scale
critical t: 1.96 (in Appendix E)
t-test formula: 5.40 (when you use your calculator!)
Result: Since the absolute value of 5.40 is greater than the critical t of 1.96, we
reject the null hypothesis and accept the research hypothesis.
Now, you need to compare the ratings of the men and women to ﬁnd out which
group had the more positive rating of their academic experience using the following
rule:
Rule: To summarize the conclusion of the two-group t-test, just compare the means
of the two groups, and be sure to use the word “signiﬁcantly” in your conclusion
if you rejected the null hypothesis and accepted the research hypothesis.
A good way to prepare to write the conclusion of the two-group t-test when you
are using a rating scale is to place the mean scores of the two groups on a drawing of
the scale so that you can visualize the difference of the mean scores. For example,
for our Biology majors alumni example above, you would draw this “picture” of the
scale in Fig. 5.6 :
This drawing tells you visually that male alumni had a higher positive rating than
female alumni on this item (7.26 vs. 4.37). And, since you rejected the null
hypothesis and accepted the research hypothesis, you know that you have found a
signiﬁcant difference between the two mean scores.
So, our conclusion needs to contain the following key words:
￿ Male alumni
￿ Female alumni
￿ State University
￿ Biology majors
￿ signiﬁcantly
￿ more satisﬁed or less satisﬁed
￿ either (7.26 vs. 4.37) or (4.37 vs. 7.26)
We can use these key words to write the either of two conclusions which are
logically identical :
Either Alumni who were male Biology majors were signiﬁcantly more satisﬁed
with their academic experience in the Biology department at State University
than female Biology majors (7.26 vs. 4.37).
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