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Or Alumni who were female Biology majors were signiﬁcantly less satisﬁed with
their academic experience in the Biology department at State University than
male Biology majors (4.37 vs. 7.26).
Both of these conclusions are accurate, so you can decide which one you want to
Also, note that the mean scores in parentheses at the end of these conclusions
must match the sequence of the two groups in your conclusion. For example, if you
say that: “Male alumni were signiﬁcantly more satisﬁed than female alumni,” the
end of this conclusion should be: (7.26 vs. 4.37) since you mentioned males ﬁrst,
and females second.
Alternately, if you wrote that: “Female alumni were signiﬁcantly less satisﬁed
than male alumni,” the end of this conclusion should be: (4.37 vs. 7.26) since you
mentioned females ﬁrst, and males second.
Putting the two mean scores at the end of your conclusion saves the reader from
having to turn back to the table in your research report to ﬁnd these mean scores to
see how far apart the mean scores were.
Now, let’s discuss FORMULA #1 that deals with the situation in which both
groups have a sample size greater than 30.
Objective : To use FORMULA #1 for the two-group t-test when
both groups have a sample size greater than 30
5.2 Formula #1: Both Groups Have a Sample Size Greater
Than 30
The ﬁrst formula we will discuss will be used when you have two groups with a
sample size greater than 30 in each group and one measurement on each member in
each group. This formula for the two-group t-test is:
X 1
X 2
S X 1 X 2
t
¼
(5.2)
where
s
S 1
n 1 þ
S 2
n 2
S X 1 X 2 ¼
(5.3)
and where degrees of freedom
¼
df
¼
n 1 þ
n 2
2
(5.1)
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