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correlation between these two variables. That is, as HSGPA increases, FRGPA
increases. For a more detailed discussion of correlation, see Zikmund and Babin
2010 ) and McCleery, Watt, and Hart ( 2007 ).
You could also use the results of the above table in the formula for computing the
correlation r in the following way:
[ (1 / (n-1)) x
] / (STDEV x x STDEV y )
[ (1/7) x 1.09 ] / [ (.48) x (.39) ]
When you use Excel for these computations, you obtain a slightly different
0.82 because Excel uses 16 decimal places for all numbers and
computations and is, therefore, more accurate than your calculator.
Now, let’s discuss how you can use Excel to ﬁnd the correlation between two
variables in a much simpler, and much faster, fashion than using your calculator.
6.2 Using Excel to Compute a Correlation
Between Two Variables
Objective : To use Excel to ﬁnd the correlation between
Suppose that an aquatic biologist in the state of Wisconsin in the U.S.A. has
asked you to ﬁnd the relationship between the weight of a speciﬁc species of female
ﬁsh and the number of eggs produced by that ﬁsh at the end of its pregnancy. The
aquatic biologist is studying female Walleye ﬁsh ( Sander vitreus ) which is a
popular ﬁsh in the United States and Canada.
To test your Excel skills, you take a random sample of ﬁsh near the end of their
pregnancy and weigh them (to the nearest gram) and then count the number of eggs
they produced (in thousands). The hypothetical data appear in Fig. 6.9 .
Important note: Note that the eggs produced have been rounded off to thousands,
so that a ﬁsh that produces 65,000 eggs would be recorded as 65.
You want to determine if there is a relationship between the weight and eggs
produced, and you decide to use a correlation to determine this relationship. Let’s
call the weight scores the predictor, X, and eggs produced, the criterion, Y.
Create an Excel spreadsheet with the following information:
A3: FEMALE WALLEYE FISH IN WISCONSIN
B5: Is there a relationship between weight and the number of eggs produced?
B7: Weight in grams (g)
Eggs produced (thousands)
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