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4.1.1 STEP 1: State the null hypothesis and the
research hypothesis
If you are using numerical scales in your survey, you need to remember that these
hypotheses refer to the “middle” of the numerical scale. For example, if you are
using 7-point scales with 1
¼
poor and 7
¼
excellent, these hypotheses would refer
to the middle of these scales and would be:
Null hypothesis H 0 :
m ¼
4
Research hypothesis H 1 :
m
4
As a second example, suppose that you worked for Honda Motor Company
and that you wanted to place a magazine ad that claimed that the new Honda Fit got
35 miles per gallon (mpg). The hypotheses for testing this claim on actual data
would be:
H 0 : m 35 mpg
H 1 :
m
35 mpg
4.1.2 STEP 2: Select the appropriate statistical test
In this chapter we will be studying the one-group t-test, and so we will select that
test.
4.1.3 STEP 3: Decide on a decision rule for the one-group t-test:
(a) If the absolute value of t is less than the critical value of t, accept the null
hypothesis.
(b) If the absolute value of t is greater than the critical value of t, reject the null
hypothesis and accept the research hypothesis.
You are probably saying to yourself: “That sounds ﬁne, but how do I ﬁnd the
absolute value of t?”
4.1.3.1 Finding the Absolute Value of a Number
To do that, we need another
Objective : To ﬁnd the absolute value of a number
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