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go beyond the degrees of freedom equal to 39, the critical value of t is always 1.96,

and that is the value you would use for the critical t with this example.

5.1.8 STEP 8: State the Result of Your Statistical Test

The result follows the exact same result format that you found for the one-group

tTest in the previous chapter (see
Sect. 4.1.6
):

Either: Since the absolute value of t that you found in the t-test formula is less

than

the

critical

value

of

t

in

Appendix

E,

you

accept

the

null

hypothesis.

Or: Since the absolute value of t that you found in the t-test formula is greater

than the critical value of t in Appendix E, you reject the null hypothesis and

accept the research hypothesis.

5.1.9 STEP 9: State the Conclusion of Your Statistical Test

in Plain English!

Writing the conclusion for the two-group t-test is more difﬁcult than writing the

conclusion for the one-group t-test because you have to decide what the difference

was between the two groups.

When you accept the null hypothesis, the conclusion is simple to write: ‘‘There

is no difference between the two groups in the variable that was measured.’’

But when you reject the null hypothesis and accept the research hypothesis, you

need to be careful about writing the conclusion so that it is both accurate and

concise.

Let’s give you some practice in writing the conclusion of a two-group t-test.

5.1.9.1 Writing the Conclusion of the Two-group t-Test

When You Accept the Null Hypothesis

Objective: To write the conclusion of the two-group t- test when you have

accepted the null hypothesis.

Suppose that a large state university wanted to study the satisfaction of

graduates who had been Biology majors with their program for alumni who had

graduated between ﬁve and ten years ago. A survey has been developed, and tried

out with a pilot study with just a few graduates to see how it was working. Item

#10 of this survey is given in Fig.
5.3
with some hypothetical data.

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