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go beyond the degrees of freedom equal to 39, the critical value of t is always 1.96,
and that is the value you would use for the critical t with this example.
5.1.8 STEP 8: State the Result of Your Statistical Test
The result follows the exact same result format that you found for the one-group
tTest in the previous chapter (see Sect. 4.1.6 ):
Either: Since the absolute value of t that you found in the t-test formula is less
Or: Since the absolute value of t that you found in the t-test formula is greater
than the critical value of t in Appendix E, you reject the null hypothesis and
accept the research hypothesis.
5.1.9 STEP 9: State the Conclusion of Your Statistical Test
in Plain English!
Writing the conclusion for the two-group t-test is more difﬁcult than writing the
conclusion for the one-group t-test because you have to decide what the difference
was between the two groups.
When you accept the null hypothesis, the conclusion is simple to write: ‘‘There
is no difference between the two groups in the variable that was measured.’’
But when you reject the null hypothesis and accept the research hypothesis, you
need to be careful about writing the conclusion so that it is both accurate and
Let’s give you some practice in writing the conclusion of a two-group t-test.
188.8.131.52 Writing the Conclusion of the Two-group t-Test
When You Accept the Null Hypothesis
Objective: To write the conclusion of the two-group t- test when you have
accepted the null hypothesis.
Suppose that a large state university wanted to study the satisfaction of
graduates who had been Biology majors with their program for alumni who had
graduated between ﬁve and ten years ago. A survey has been developed, and tried
out with a pilot study with just a few graduates to see how it was working. Item
#10 of this survey is given in Fig. 5.3 with some hypothetical data.
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