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the data points move ‘‘upward-and-to-the-right’’ along a perfectly-ﬁtting straight

line (see Fig.
6.1
).

Fig. 6.1

Example of a scatterplot for a perfect, positive correlation (r = +1.0)

Figure
6.2
shows the scatterplot for a moderately positive correlation of

r = +0.53. This means that each x-value can predict each y-value moderately well

because you can draw a picture of a ‘‘football’’ around the outside of the data

points that move upward-and-to-the-right, but not along a straight line (see

Fig.
6.2
).

Fig. 6.2

Example of a scatterplot for a moderate, positive correlation (r = +0.53)

Figure
6.3
shows the scatterplot for a low, positive correlation of r = +0.23.

This means that each x-value is a poor predictor of each y-value because the

‘‘picture’’ you could draw around the outside of the data points approaches a circle

in shape (see Fig.
6.3
).

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