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Here are the answers to these three questions:
1. The null hypothesis is l ¼ 3, and the research hypothesis is l 6¼ 3 on this 5-point
scale (i.e. the ‘‘middle’’ of the scale is 3).
2. The null hypothesis is l ¼ 4, and the research hypothesis is l 6¼ 4 on this 7-point
scale (i.e., the ‘‘middle’’ of the scale is 4).
3. The null hypothesis is l ¼ 5 : 5, and the research hypothesis is l 6¼ 5 : 5 on this
10-point scale (i.e., the ‘‘middle’’ of the scale is 5.5 since there are 5 numbers
below 5.5 and 5 numbers above 5.5).
As another example, suppose Texas Parks and Wildlife uses a 4-point scale in
its post-hunting satisfaction survey. The results of this survey are used to
determine the number of licenses issued for wildlife management the following hunting
season. The scale is as follows:
1 = Not So Good
2 = Average
3 = Very Good
4 = Great
On this scale, the null hypothesis is: l ¼ 2 : 5 and the research hypothesis is:
l 6¼ 2 : 5 ; because there are two numbers below 2.5, and two numbers above 2.5 on
that rating scale.
Now, let’s discuss the 7 STEPS of hypothesis testing for using the conﬁdence
interval about the mean.
3.2.3 The 7 Steps for Hypothesis-Testing Using the Conﬁdence
Interval About the Mean
Objective: To learn the 7 steps of hypothesis-testing using the conﬁdence
interval about the mean
There are seven basic steps of hypothesis-testing for this statistical test.
STEP 1: State the null hypothesis and the research hypothesis
If you are using numerical scales in your survey, you need to remember that
these hypotheses refer to the ‘‘middle’’ of the numerical scale. For example, if you
are using 7-point scales with 1 = poor and 7 = excellent, these hypotheses would
refer to the middle of these scales and would be:
Null hypothesis H 0 : l ¼ 4
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