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• Signiﬁcantly

• either ‘‘more than’’ or ‘‘less than’’

• and probably closer to

Rule #3:

The Honda Accord Sedan got signiﬁcantly less than 34 mpg, and it

was probably closer to 31 mpg.

Note that this conclusion says that the mpg was less than 34 mpg because the

sample mean was only 31 mpg. Note, also, that when you ﬁnd a signiﬁcant result

by rejecting the null hypothesis, it is not sufﬁcient to say only: ‘‘signiﬁcantly less

than 34 mpg,’’ because that does not tell the reader ‘‘how much less than 34 mpg’’

the sample mean was from 34 mpg. To make the conclusion clear, you need to

add: ‘‘probably closer to 31 mpg’’ since the sample mean was only 31 mpg.

CASE #2:

The National Association of Biology Teachers (NABT) is an

American-based scholarly Life Sciences society with more than

5,000 members. The NABT hosts an annual Professional

Development Conference for four days that focuses on the teaching of

biology and the life sciences in the 21st century. The conference

includes hands-on workshops and informative sessions for

participants. Suppose that the NABT wanted to use an Internet Survey to

evaluate the annual conference based on responses from the

participants. Let’s suppose that you have been asked to perform

the data analyses for the returned surveys, and that you want to

practice your data analysis skills on the hypothetical Item #15 given

in Fig.
3.8
:

Fig. 3.8

Example of item #15 of the NABT survey

The hypotheses for this one item would be:

H
0
: l =4

H
1
: l = 4

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