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• Signiﬁcantly
• either ‘‘more than’’ or ‘‘less than’’
• and probably closer to
Rule #3:
The Honda Accord Sedan got signiﬁcantly less than 34 mpg, and it
was probably closer to 31 mpg.
Note that this conclusion says that the mpg was less than 34 mpg because the
sample mean was only 31 mpg. Note, also, that when you ﬁnd a signiﬁcant result
by rejecting the null hypothesis, it is not sufﬁcient to say only: ‘‘signiﬁcantly less
than 34 mpg,’’ because that does not tell the reader ‘‘how much less than 34 mpg’’
the sample mean was from 34 mpg. To make the conclusion clear, you need to
add: ‘‘probably closer to 31 mpg’’ since the sample mean was only 31 mpg.
CASE #2:
The National Association of Biology Teachers (NABT) is an
American-based scholarly Life Sciences society with more than
5,000 members. The NABT hosts an annual Professional
Development Conference for four days that focuses on the teaching of
biology and the life sciences in the 21st century. The conference
includes hands-on workshops and informative sessions for
participants. Suppose that the NABT wanted to use an Internet Survey to
evaluate the annual conference based on responses from the
participants. Let’s suppose that you have been asked to perform
the data analyses for the returned surveys, and that you want to
practice your data analysis skills on the hypothetical Item #15 given
in Fig. 3.8 :
Fig. 3.8
Example of item #15 of the NABT survey
The hypotheses for this one item would be:
H 0 : l =4
H 1 : l = 4
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