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either excellent or is not excellent without any modiﬁer, and (2) since the mean

rating of the quality of the articles dealing with Ecology/Environment (5.8) was

signiﬁcantly greater than 5.5 on the positive side of the scale, we would say

‘‘signiﬁcantly positive’’ to indicate this fact.

If you want a more detailed explanation of the conﬁdence interval about the

mean, see Townend (
2002
).

The three practice problems at the end of this chapter will give you additional

practice in stating the conclusion of your result, and this topic will include many

more examples that will help you to write a clear and accurate conclusion to your

research ﬁndings.

3.3 Alternative Ways to Summarize the Result

of a Hypothesis Test

It is important for you to understand that in this topic we are summarizing an

hypothesis test in one of two ways: (1) We accept the null hypothesis, or (2) We

reject the null hypothesis and accept the research hypothesis. We are consistent in

the use of these words so that you can understand the concept underlying

hypothesis testing.

However, there are many other ways to summarize the result of an hypothesis

test, and all of them are correct theoretically, even though the terminology differs.

If you are taking a course with a professor who wants you to summarize the results

of a statistical test of hypotheses in language which is different from the language

we are using in this topic, do not panic! If you understand the concept of

hypothesis testing as described in this topic, you can then translate your

understanding to use the terms that your professor wants you to use to reach the same

conclusion to the hypothesis test.

Statisticians and professors of science statistics all have their own language that

they like to use to summarize the results of an hypothesis test. There is no one set

of words that these statisticians and professors will ever agree on, and so we have

chosen the one that we believe to be easier to understand in terms of the concept of

hypothesis testing.

To convince you that there are many ways to summarize the results of an

hypothesis test, we present the following quotes from prominent statistics and

research books to give you an idea of the different ways that are possible.

3.3.1 Different Ways to Accept the Null Hypothesis

The following quotes are typical of the language used in statistics and research

books when the null hypothesis is accepted:

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