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either excellent or is not excellent without any modiﬁer, and (2) since the mean
rating of the quality of the articles dealing with Ecology/Environment (5.8) was
signiﬁcantly greater than 5.5 on the positive side of the scale, we would say
‘‘signiﬁcantly positive’’ to indicate this fact.
If you want a more detailed explanation of the conﬁdence interval about the
mean, see Townend ( 2002 ).
The three practice problems at the end of this chapter will give you additional
practice in stating the conclusion of your result, and this topic will include many
more examples that will help you to write a clear and accurate conclusion to your
3.3 Alternative Ways to Summarize the Result
of a Hypothesis Test
It is important for you to understand that in this topic we are summarizing an
hypothesis test in one of two ways: (1) We accept the null hypothesis, or (2) We
reject the null hypothesis and accept the research hypothesis. We are consistent in
the use of these words so that you can understand the concept underlying
However, there are many other ways to summarize the result of an hypothesis
test, and all of them are correct theoretically, even though the terminology differs.
If you are taking a course with a professor who wants you to summarize the results
of a statistical test of hypotheses in language which is different from the language
we are using in this topic, do not panic! If you understand the concept of
hypothesis testing as described in this topic, you can then translate your
understanding to use the terms that your professor wants you to use to reach the same
conclusion to the hypothesis test.
Statisticians and professors of science statistics all have their own language that
they like to use to summarize the results of an hypothesis test. There is no one set
of words that these statisticians and professors will ever agree on, and so we have
chosen the one that we believe to be easier to understand in terms of the concept of
To convince you that there are many ways to summarize the results of an
hypothesis test, we present the following quotes from prominent statistics and
research books to give you an idea of the different ways that are possible.
3.3.1 Different Ways to Accept the Null Hypothesis
The following quotes are typical of the language used in statistics and research
books when the null hypothesis is accepted:
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