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In Depth Information
‘‘The null hypothesis is not rejected’’ (Black 2010 , p. 310).
‘‘The null hypothesis cannot be rejected’’ (McDaniel and Gates 2010 , p. 545).
‘‘The null hypothesis … claims that there is no difference between groups’’
(Salkind 2010 , p. 193).
‘‘The difference is not statistically signiﬁcant’’ (McDaniel and Gates 2010 ,
p. 545).
‘‘… the obtained value is not extreme enough for us to say that the difference
between Groups 1 and 2 occurred by anything other than chance’’ (Salkind 2010 ,
p. 225).
‘‘If we do not reject the null hypothesis, we conclude that there is not enough
statistical evidence to infer that the alternative (hypothesis) is true’’ (Keller 2009 ,
p. 358).
‘‘The research hypothesis is not supported’’ (Zikmund and Babin 2010 , p. 552).
3.3.2 Different Ways to Reject the Null Hypothesis
The following quotes are typical of the quotes used in statistics and research books
when the null hypothesis is rejected:
‘‘The null hypothesis is rejected’’ (McDaniel and Gates 2010 , p. 546).
‘‘If we reject the null hypothesis, we conclude that there is enough statistical
evidence to infer that the alternative hypothesis is true’’ (Keller 2009 , p. 358).
‘‘If the test statistic’s value is inconsistent with the null hypothesis, we reject
the null hypothesis and infer that the alternative hypothesis is true’’ (Keller 2009 ,
p. 348).
‘‘Because the observed value … is greater than the critical value …, the
decision is to reject the null hypothesis’’ (Black 2010 , p. 359).
‘‘If the obtained value is more extreme than the critical value, the null
hypothesis cannot be accepted.’’ (Salkind 2010 , p. 243)
‘‘The critical t-value … must be surpassed by the observed t-value if the
hypothesis test is to be statistically signiﬁcant ….’’ (Zikmund and Babin 2010 ,
p. 567).
‘‘The calculated test statistic … exceeds the upper boundary and falls into this
rejection region. The null hypothesis is rejected’’ (Weiers 2011 , p. 330).
You should note that all of the above quotes are used by statisticians and
professors when discussing the results of an hypothesis test, and so you should not
be surprised if someone asks you to summarize the results of a statistical test using
a different language than the one we are using in this topic.
3.4 End-of-Chapter Practice Problems
1. Suppose that you were hired to conduct a research study determining milk yield
in bovines on a dairy farm in the state of Wisconsin. Last year, the average
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