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4.1.1 STEP 1: State the Null Hypothesis and the Research
If you are using numerical scales in your survey, you need to remember that these
hypotheses refer to the ‘‘middle’’ of the numerical scale. For example, if you are
using 7-point scales with 1 = poor and 7 = excellent, these hypotheses would
refer to the middle of these scales and would be:
Null hypothesis H 0 :
l = 4
Research hypothesis H 1 :
l = 4
As a second example, suppose that you worked for Honda Motor Company and
that you wanted to place a magazine ad that claimed that the new Honda Fit got 35
miles per gallon (mpg). The hypotheses for testing this claim on actual data would be:
H 0 : l ¼ 35 mpg
H 1 : l 35 mpg
4.1.2 STEP 2: Select the Appropriate Statistical Test
In this chapter we will be studying the one-group t-test, and so we will select that
4.1.3 STEP 3: Decide on a Decision Rule for the One-Group t-Test
(a) If the absolute value of t is less than the critical value of t, accept the null
(b) If the absolute value of t is greater than the critical value of t, reject the null
hypothesis and accept the research hypothesis.
You are probably saying to yourself: ‘‘That sounds fine, but how do I find the
absolute value of t?’’ Finding the Absolute Value of a Number
To do that, we need another objective:
Objective: To find the absolute value of a number
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