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In Depth Information

4.1.1 STEP 1: State the Null Hypothesis and the Research

Hypothesis

If you are using numerical scales in your survey, you need to remember that these

hypotheses refer to the ‘‘middle’’ of the numerical scale. For example, if you are

using 7-point scales with 1 = poor and 7 = excellent, these hypotheses would

refer to the middle of these scales and would be:

Null hypothesis H
0
:

l = 4

Research hypothesis H
1
:

l = 4

As a second example, suppose that you worked for Honda Motor Company and

that you wanted to place a magazine ad that claimed that the new Honda Fit got 35

miles per gallon (mpg). The hypotheses for testing this claim on actual data would be:

H
0
: l
¼
35 mpg

H
1
: l
6¼
35 mpg

4.1.2 STEP 2: Select the Appropriate Statistical Test

In this chapter we will be studying the one-group t-test, and so we will select that

test.

4.1.3 STEP 3: Decide on a Decision Rule for the One-Group t-Test

(a) If the absolute value of t is less than the critical value of t, accept the null

hypothesis.

(b) If the absolute value of t is greater than the critical value of t, reject the null

hypothesis and accept the research hypothesis.

You are probably saying to yourself: ‘‘That sounds ﬁne, but how do I ﬁnd the

absolute value of t?’’

4.1.3.1 Finding the Absolute Value of a Number

To do that, we need another objective:

Objective: To ﬁnd the absolute value of a number

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