Microsoft Office Tutorials and References
In Depth Information
Using Absolute Cell References
Using Absolute Cell References
When you want a formula to consistently refer to a particular cell, even if you copy or
move the formula elsewhere on the worksheet, you need to use an absolute cell reference.
An absolute cell reference is a cell address that contains a dollar sign ($) in the row or
column coordinate, or both. When you enter a cell reference in a formula, Excel assumes
it is a relative reference unless you change it to an absolute reference. If you want part
of a formula to remain a relative reference, remove the dollar sign that appears before the
column letter or row number.
Create an Absolute Reference
Click a cell where you want to enter a formula.
Type = (an equal sign) to begin the formula.
Select a cell, and then type an arithmetic operator (+, -, *, or /).
Select another cell, and then press the F4 key to make that cell reference abso-
You can continue to press F4 to have Excel cycle through the different referen-
ce types.
If necessary, continue entering the formula.
Click the Enter button on the formula bar, or press Enter.
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